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Atlas of Histologywith functional correlations. 13-Ed

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Atlas of Histologywith functional correlations. 13-Ed


Автор: Victor P. Eroschenko

Год: 2017

This work is provided "as is," and the publisher disclaims any and all warranties, express or implied, including any warranties as to accuracy, comprehensiveness, or currency of the content of this work.

This work is no substitute for individual patient assessment based upon healthcare professionals examination of each patient and consideration of, among other things, age, weight, gender, current or prior medical conditions, medication history, laboratory data and other factors unique to the patient The publisher does not provide medical advice or guidance and this work is merely a reference tool. Healthcare professionals, and not the publisher, are solely responsible for the use of this work Includ­ing all medical judgments and for any resulting diagnosis and treatments.

This work is provided "as is," and the publisher disclaims any and all warranties, express or implied, including any warranties as to accuracy, comprehensiveness, or currency of the content of this work.

This work is no substitute for individual patient assessment based upon healthcare professionals examination of each patient and consideration of, among other things, age, weight, gender, current or prior medical conditions, medication history, laboratory data and other factors unique to the patient The publisher does not provide medical advice or guidance and this work is merely a reference tool. Healthcare professionals, and not the publisher, are solely responsible for the use of this work Includ­ing all medical judgments and for any resulting diagnosis and treatments.

Кол-во страниц:645 Язык:Английский Издательство:Wolters Kluwer

Dedication v
Preface to the Thirteenth Edition vii Reviewers ix
CHAPTER 1 histologic methods 2
SECTION 1 Tissue Preparation and Staining of Sections 2 SECTION 2 Histologic Slide Interpretation 4
figure 1.1 Kidney cortex with a renal corpuscle and different convoluted tubules. 4
figure 1.2 Skeletal muscle sectioned in the longitudinal plane and cross section with surrounding blue-staining connective tissue. 5
figure 1.3 Villus of a small intestine with brush border, columnar epithelium, and goblet cells. 5
figure 1.4 Section of a wall from the aorta, showing the presence of dark-staining elastic fibers and pink smooth muscles. 5
figure 1.5 Intramembranous ossification in skull bones showing blue connective tissue, red blood cells, and blood vessels with blood cells. 5
figure 1.6 Blood smear with different cells and platelets. 6
figure 1.7 Cross section of the spinal cord showing the gray and white matter. 6
figure 1.8 Cross section of a peripheral nerve showing the myelin sheath of the axons. 6
figure 1.9 Small artery and veins showing blood cells and the surrounding connective tissues. 6
figure 1.10 Planes of sections through a round object, a hard-boiled, solid egg. 7
figure 1.11 Planes of section through a hollow object, a tube. 8
figure 1.12 Tubules of the testis in different planes of section. 9
Cell and Cytoplasm
CHAPTER 2 light and transmission electron microscopy 12
figure 2.1 Composite illustration of a cell, its cytoplasm, and its organelles. 13
figure 2.2 Composition of cell membrane. 14
figure 2.3 Internal and external morphology of ciliated and nonciliated epithelium. 20
figure 2 .4 A junctional complex between epithelial cells. 21
figure 2.5 Basal regions of epithelial cells. 22
figure 2.6 Basal region of an ion-transporting cell. 23
figure 2.7 Cilia and microvilli. 24
figure 2.8 Nuclear envelope and nuclear pores. 25
figure 2.9 Mitochondria (longitudinal and cross section). 26
figure 2.10 Rough endoplasmic reticulum. 26
figure 2.11 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 27
figure 2.12 Golgi apparatus. 28
figure 2.13 в infrastructure of lysosomes and residual bodies in the cytoplasm of a tissue macrophage. 29
figure 2.14 Cytoplasmic contents and organelles of a ciliated cell from an avian oviduct. 34
figure 2.15 Cell and cytoplasmic organelles in a cell from a rodent spinal cord. 34
figure 2.16 A section of a cell nucleus and the adjacent cytoplasmic organelles. 35
figure 2.17 A section of a ciliated cell cytoplasm exhibiting different organelles in the epithelium of an avian oviduct. 35
figure 2.18 Secretory cells with dense secretory granules in the apical regions of a gland from a section of an avian oviduct. 36
figure 2.19 Apical section of cells from the lining epithelium of an avian oviduct showing different cytoplasmic organelles. 36
figure 2.20 Transverse section of a secretory epithelium from an avian oviduct showing the developed rough endoplasmic reticulum. 37
figure 2.21 Secretory cell with dense secretory granules and the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum in the glandular epithelium of an avian oviduct. 37
CHAPTER 3 cells and the cell cycle 38
figure 3.1 Different phases of mitosis and cytokinesis. 40
CHAPTER 4 EPITHELIAL TISSUE 44
SECTION 1 Classification of Epithelial Tissue 44
figure 4.1 Different types of epithelia in selected organs. 45
figure 4.2 Simple squamous epithelium: surface view of peritoneal mesothelium. 47
figure 4.3 Simple squamous epithelium: peritoneal mesothelium surrounding the small intestine (transverse section). 48
figure 4.4 Different epithelial types in the kidney cortex. 49
figure 4.5 Simple columnar epithelium: surface of the stomach. 49
figure 4.6 Simple columnar epithelium on villi in the small intestine: cells with brush
borders (microvilli) and goblet cells. 50
figure 4.7 Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium: respiratory passages—trachea. 52
figure 4.8 Transitional epithelium: bladder (unstretched or relaxed). 53
figure 4.9 Transitional epithelium: bladder (stretched). 54
figure 4.10 Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium: esophagus. 55
figure 4.11 Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium: palm of the hand. 56
figure 4.12 Stratified cuboidal epithelium: an excretory duct in the salivary gland. 57
SECTION 2 Classification of Glandular Tissue 60
figure 4.13 Unbranched simple tubular exocrine glands: intestinal glands. A. Diagram of the gland. B. Transverse section of the large intestine. 61
figure 4.14 Simple branched tubular exocrine gland: gastric glands. A. Diagram of the gland. B. Transverse section of the stomach. 62
figure 4.15 Coiled tubular exocrine glands: sweat glands. a. Diagram of the gland. B. Transverse and three-dimensional view of a coiled sweat gland. 62
figure 4. 16 Compound acinar exocrine gland: mammary gland. a. Diagram of the gland. В and C. A mammary gland during lactation. 63
figure 4. 17 Compound tubuloacinar (exocrine) gland: salivary gland. a. Diagram of the gland. b. a submandibular salivary gland. 63
figure 4.18 Compound tubuloacinar (exocrine) gland: submaxillary salivary gland. 64
figure 4.19 Endocrine gland: pancreatic islet. a. Diagram of a pancreatic islet. b. High magnification of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. 65
figure 4.20 Endocrine and exocrine pancreas. 66
figure 4.21 Simple cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium in different tubules of a rodent kidney. 69
figure 4.22 Simple columnar and simple squamous epithelia in the papillary region of a primate kidney. 69
figure 4.23 Simple columnar epithelium with brush border, goblet cells, and lymphocytes in the connective tissue of a rodent intestinal villus. 70
figure 4.24 Simple columnar epithelium exhibiting both ciliated and secretory cells overlying connective tissue with fibrocytes in a primate oviduct. 70
figure 4.25 Stratified cuboidal epithelium lining the excretory duct of a primate salivary gland and surrounded by connective tissue fibers and cells. 71
figure 4.26 Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia surrounded by smooth muscle fibers in a primate epididymis. 71
figure 4.27 Transitional epithelium in a relaxed primate bladder overlying connective tissue with fibrocytes. 72
figure 4.28 Stratified squamous nonkeratinized (moist) vaginal primate epithelium with underlying connective tissue filled with numerous dark-staining lymphocytes. 72
CHAPTER 5 connective tissue 73
figure 5.1 Composite illustration of loose connective tissue with its predominant cells and fibers. 74
figure 5.2 Loose connective tissue (spread). Stained for cells and fibers. 77
figure 5.3 Cells of the connective tissue. 78
figure 5.4 A connective tissue, a capillary, and a mast cell in the mesentery of a small intestine. 79
figure 5.5 Embryonic connective tissue. 79
figure 5.6 Loose connective tissue with blood vessels and adipose cells. 80
figure 5.7 Dense irregular and loose irregular connective tissue. 81
figure 5.8 Dense irregular and loose irregular connective tissue. 81
figure 5.9 Dense irregular connective tissue and adipose tissue. 82
figure 5.ю Dense regular connective tissue: tendon (longitudinal section). 83
figure 5.11 Dense regular connective tissue: tendon (longitudinal section). 84
figure 5.12 Dense regular connective tissue: tendon (transverse section). 85
figure 5.13 Adipose tissue in the intestine. 85
figure 5.14 Mesenchymal tissue from a developing rodent fetus. 90
figure 5.15 Whole mount section through a mesentery illustrating the loose connective tissue, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and the abundant surrounding ground substance. 90
figure 5.16 Loose connective tissue below the transitional epithelium in a section from a primate urethra. 91
figure 5.17 Dense irregular connective tissue in a canine lip adjacent to white adipose cells (tissue). 91
figure 5.18 Dense regular connective tissue from a primate tendon illustrating the dense arrangement of collagen fibers and the compressed fibroblasts. 92
figure 5.19 Reticular fiber meshwork in a primate lymph node. 92
figure 5.20 A section of the wall from an aorta illustrating different connective tissue fibers and smooth muscle fibers. 93
figure 5.21 White adipose tissue (cells) adjacent to skeletal muscle fibers and dense irregular collagen fibers. Histologic preparation dissolved the lipids in the cell cytoplasm, showing only the nuclei. 93
CHAPTER 6 hematopoietic tissue 94
SECTION 1 Blood 94
figure 6.1 Differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid stem cells into their mature forms and their distribution in the blood and connective tissue. 95
figure 6.2 Human blood smear: erythrocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, a lymphocyte, and platelets. 97
figure 6.3 Human blood smear: RBGs. neutrophils, a large lymphocyte, and platelets. 98
figure 6.4 Erythrocytes and platelets in a blood smear. 98
figure 6.5 Neutrophils and a Barr body. 99
figure 6.6 Eosinophil. 100
figure 6.7 Lymphocytes. 100
figure 6.8 Monocyte. 101
figure 6.9 Basophil. 101
figure 6.10 Human blood smear: a basophil, a neutrophil, erythrocytes, and platelets. 103
figure 6.11 Human blood smear: a monocyte, erythrocytes, and platelets. 103
figure 6.12 Development of different blood cells in the red bone marrow (decalcified). 107
SECTION 2 Bone Marrow 107
figure 6.13 Bone marrow smear: development of different blood cell types. 109
figure 6.14 Bone marrow smear: selected precursors of different blood cells. 110
figure 6.15 Human blood smear showing different blood cells and cellular fragments, the platelets. 114
figure 6.16 Human blood smear exhibiting different blood cells and cell fragments. 114
figure 6.17 High magnification of a human blood smear showing two neutrophils with multilobar nuclei and some light-staining cytoplasmic granules. 115
figure 6.18 High magnification of a human blood smear showing an eosinophil with characteristic pink-staining eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules and bilobed nucleus, lis 115
figure 6.19 High magnification of a human blood smear showing a basophil with characteristic dark blue--staining cytoplasmic granules. 116
figure 6.20 High magnification of a human blood smear showing a large monocyte with characteristic "kidney-shaped" nucleus. 116
figure 6.21 High magnification of a human blood smear showing a seldom-seen large lymphocyte with a characteristic dense nucleus and a rim of visible, blue-staining cytoplasm. 117
figure 6.22 High magnification of a human blood smear showing a small lymphocyte with a dense blue nucleus occupying almost all of the cytoplasm. 117
CHAPTER 7 skeletal tissue: cartilage and bone 118
SECTION 1 Cartilage lit
figure 7.1 Endochondral ossification illustrating the progressive stages of bone formation from a cartilage model of bone. 119
figure 7.2 Developing fetal hyaline cartilage. 120
figure 7.3 Hyaline cartilage and surrounding structures: trachea. 121
figure 7.4 Cells and matrix of mature hyaline cartilage. 122
figure 7.5 Hyaline cartilage: developing bone. 122
figure 7.6 Elastic cartilage: epiglottis. 123
figure 7.7 Elastic cartilage, epiglottis. 124
figure 7.8 Fibrocartilage: intervertebral disk. 124
figure 7.9 Dense fibrocartilage with chondrocytes and type I collagen fibers from a primate intervertebral disk. 125
figure 7.10 A peripheral section of hyaline cartilage showing the perichondrium and the cellular contents. 128
figure 7.11 A higher magnification of the hyaline cartilage and its cellular contents. 128
figure 7.12 A higher magnification of a peripheral section of hyaline cartilage with surrounding perichondrium. 129
figure 7.13 A section of an elastic cartilage showing the peripheral perichondrium and its contents. 129
figure 7.14 High magnification of elastic cartilage (peripheral section). 130
figure 7.15 A section of fibrocartilage from an intervertebral disk illustrating the density of the connective tissue. 130
figure 7.16 A section of intervertebral disk showing the fibrocartilage cut at a different angle, the collagen fibers, and chondrocytes. 131
figure 7.17 Fibrocartilage from a different region of the intervertebral disk illustrating the dense collagen fibers and chondrocytes between the fibers. 131
SECTION 2 Bone 152
figure 7.18 Histology of a section of formed compact bone. 133
figure 7.19 Endochondral ossification: development of a long bone (panoramic view. longitudinal section). 136
figure 7.20 Endochondral ossification: zone of ossification. 137
figure 7.21 Endochondral ossification: zone of ossification. 138
figure 7.22 Endochondral ossification: formation of secondary (epiphyseal) centers of ossification and the epiphyseal plate in a long bone (decalcified bone, longitudinal section). 139
figure 7.23 Bone formation: primitive bone marrow and development of osteons (Haversian systems; decalcified bone, transverse section). 140
figure 7.24 Intramembranous ossification: developing mandible (decalcified bone, transverse section). 141
figure 7.25 Intramembranous ossification: developing skull bone (decalcified bone; transverse section). 142
figure 7.26 Cancellous bone with trabeculae and bone marrow cavities: sternum (decalcified bone, transverse section). 142
figure 7.27 Cancellous bone: sternum (decalcified bone, transverse section). 143
figure 7.28 Dry. compact bone: ground, transverse section. 144
figure 7.29 Dry. compact bone: ground, longitudinal section. 145
figure 7.30 Dry. compact bone: an osteon, transverse section. 146
figure 7.31 Endochondral ossification illustrating the hyaline cartilage matrix, calcified cartilage, and formation of the bony collar. 150
figure 7.32 Endochondral ossification showing calcified cartilage with bony layers and the developing bone marrow. 150
figure 7.33 A section of the calcified cartilage in endochondral ossification with bone marrow cells. 151
figure 7.34 Endochondral ossification with calcified cartilage, bone matrix, and bone-forming cells. 151
figure 7.35 Intramembranous ossification showing the bone-forming cells and the developing bone marrow. 152
figure 7.36 Bone trabeculae undergoing development by intramembranous ossification. 152
figure 7.37 Higher-magnification bony trabeculae undergoing intramembranous ossification. 153
figure 7.38 Dry and ground compact bone illustrates its internal structures. 153
CHAPTER 8 muscle tissue isa
SECTION 1 Skeletal Muscle 154
figure 8.1 Diagrammatic representation of the microscopic appearance of skeletal muscle. 155
figure 8.2 Longitudinal and transverse sections of skeletal (striated) muscles of the tongue. 156
figure 8.3 Skeletal (striated) muscles of the tongue (longitudinal and transverse section). 157
figure 8.4 Skeletal muscle fibers (longitudinal section). 158
figure 8.5 Ultrastructure of myofibrils in skeletal muscle. 159
figure 8.6 Ultrastructure of sarcomeres. T tubules, and triads in skeletal muscle. 160
figure 8.7 Skeletal muscles, nerves, axons, and motor endplates. 160
figure 8.8 Skeletal muscle with a muscle spindle (transverse section). 162
SECTION 2 Cardiac Musde 161
figure 8.9 Diagrammatic representation of the microscopic appearance of cardiac muscle. 163
figure 8.10 Longitudinal and transverse sections of cardiac muscle. 164
figure 8.11 Cardiac muscle (longitudinal section). 165
figure 8.12 Cardiac muscle in longitudinal section. 165
figure 8.13 Ultrastructure of cardiac muscle in longitudinal section. 166
SECTION 3 Smooth Musde 163
figure 8.14 Diagrammatic representation of the microscopic appearance of smooth muscle. 168
figure 8.15 longitudinal and transverse section of smooth muscle in the wall of the small intestine. 169
figure 8.16 Smooth muscle: wall of the small intestine (transverse and longitudinal section). 170
figure 8.17 Ultrastructure of smooth muscle fibers from a section of an intestinal wall. 170
figure 8.18 Cross and longitudinal section of skeletal muscle fibers from a primate tongue. 175
figure 8.19 Higher magnification of skeletal muscle from the tongue sectioned in longitudinal and transverse planes. 175
figure 8.20 High magnification of a plastic section showing skeletal muscle striations. peripheral nuclei, and the surrounding connective tissue. 176
figure 8.21 Thin plastic section of a skeletal muscle showing the muscle spindle, its contents, and the surrounding muscle fibers. 176
figure 8.22 High magnification of a section of primate cardiac muscle showing the central nuclei and intercalated discs. 177
figure 8.23 Section of a primate heart muscle illustrating the appearance of cardiac muscle fibers cut in different planes. 177
figure 8.24 A cross section of a small intestine wall showing the circular (upper) and longitudinal (lower) smooth muscle layers. 178
figure 8.25 High magnification of the circular layer of the smooth muscle in the wall of a primate small intestine. 178
CHAPTER 9 nervous tissue 179
SECTION 1 Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord 179
figure 9.1 Central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord. A section of the brain and spinal cord is illustrated with their protective connective tissue layers called meninges (dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater). 179
figure 9.2 Examples of different types of neurons located in various ganglia and organs outside the CNS. 180
figure 9.3 Spinal cord: midthoracic region (transverse section). 183
figure 9.4 Spinal cord: anterior gray horn, motor neuron, and adjacent white matter. 184
figure 9.5 Spinal cord: midcervical region (transverse section). 185
figure 9.6 Spinal cord: anterior gray horn, motor neurons, and adjacent anterior white matter. 186
figure 9.7 Ultrastructure of typical axodendritic synapses in the CNS. Transmission electron micrograph. 187
figure 9.8 Motor neurons: anterior horn of the spinal cord. 188
figure 9.9 Neurofibrils and motor neurons in the gray matter of the anterior horn of the spinal cord. 190
figure 9.io Anterior gray horn of the spinal cord: multipolar neurons, axons, and neuroglial cells. 191
figure 9.11 Cerebral cortex: gray matter: 192
figure 9.12 Layer V of the cerebral cortex. 193
figure 9.13 Cerebellum (transverse section). 194
figure 9.14 Cerebellar cortex: molecular. Purkinje cell, and granular cell layers. 195
figure 9.15 Fibrous astrocytes and capillary in the brain. 196
figure 9.16 Ultrastructure of a capillary in the CNS and the perivascular endfeet of astrocytes. Transmission electron micrograph. 197
figure 9.17 Oligodendrocytes of the brain. 198
figure 9.18 Ultrastructure of an oligodendrocyte in the CNS with myelinated axons. Transmission electron micrograph. 199
figure 9.19 Ultrastructure of myelinated axons in the CNS with a node of Ranvier. Transmission electron micrograph. 200
figure 9.20 Microglia of the brain. 201
SECTION 2 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 207
figure 9.21 Peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS is composed of the cranial and spinal nerves. A cross section of the spinal cord is illustrated with the characteristic features of the motor neuron and a cross section of a peripheral nerve. 207
figure 9.22 Peripheral nerves and blood vessels (transverse section). 208
figure 9.23 Myelinated nerve fibers (longitudinal and transverse sections). 209
figure 9.24 Sciatic nerve (longitudinal section). 210
figure 9.25 Sciatic nerve (longitudinal section). 211
figure 9.26 Sciatic nerve (transverse section). 211
figure 9.27 Peripheral nerve: nodes of Ranvier and axons. 212
figure 9.28 Ultrastructure of peripheral nerve fascicle in the PNS cut in the transverse plane. 213
figure 9.29 Dorsal root ganglion, with dorsal and ventral roots, spinal nerve (longitudinal section). 214
figure 9.30 Cells and unipolar neurons of a dorsal root ganglion. 215
figure 9.31 Multipolar neurons, surrounding cells, and nerve fibers of a sympathetic ganglion. 215
figure 9.32 Dorsal root ganglion: unipolar neurons and surrounding cells. 216
figure 9.33 Transverse section of a spinal cord through the midthoracic region. 219
figure 9.34 Transverse section of a spinal cord through the lumbar region. 219
figure 9.35 a section of the anterior horn of spinal cord illustrating multipolar motor neurons and the adjacent myelinated axons. 220
figure 9.36 A section of an anterior horn of the spinal cord illustrating the cellular and fibrillar components of the cord. 220
figure 9.37 Spinal cord spread showing a multipolar motor neuron in the anterior horn. 221
figure 9.38 A section of sensory dorsal root ganglion with its unipolar neurons, axons bundles, and the surrounding connective tissue capsule. 221
figure 9.39 A transverse section of a nerve illustrating individual cells, axons, and the surrounding connective tissue. 222
figure 9.40 A longitudinal section of a peripheral nerve with nodes of Ranvier. axons, and the protein network in the washed-out myelin sheaths. 222
CHAPTER 10 circulatory system 224
figure 10.1 Muscular artery. 225
figure 10.2 Large vein. 226
figure 10.3 Three fypes of capillaries (transverse sections). 227
figure 10.4 Blood and lymphatic vessels in the connective tissue. 228
figure 10.5 Capillaries sectioned in transverse and longitudinal planes in the mesentery of a small intestine. 229
figure 10.6 Ultrastructure of a continuous capillary sectioned in the transverse plane in the CNS. 230
figure 10.7 Ultrastructure of a fenestrated capillary sectioned in the transverse plane in the choroid plexus of a CNS ventricle. 231
figure 10.8 Muscular artery and vein (transverse section). 232
figure 10.9 Artery and vein in the dense irregular connective tissue of the vas deferens. 233
figure 10.10 Wall of a large elastic artery: aorta (transverse section). 234
figure 10.11 Wall of a large vein: portal vein (transverse section). 235
figure 10.12 Heart: a section of the left atrium, atrioventricular valve, and left ventricle (longitudinal section). 236
figure ю.13 Heart: a section of the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary valve (longitudinal section), 237
figure 10.14 Heart: contracting cardiac muscle fibers and impulse-conducting Purkinje fibers. 238
figure 10.15 a section of heart wall: Purkinje fibers. 239
figure 10.16 Mesentery spread with a capillary, endothelial nuclei, and the surrounding connective tissue cells and fibers. 245
figure 10.17 a section of a mesentery illustrating a capillary with red blood cells, a mast cell, and the surrounding washed-out outlines of adipose cells. 245
figure 10.18 Structural comparison between an artery and a vein in the mesentery. 246
figure 10.19 Structural comparison of layers in the walls of a vein and an artery in the mesentery. 246
figure 10.20 Comparison of a small artery and a vein with valves surrounded by loose connective tissue with fibrocytes. 247
figure 10.21 Higher magnification of an artery and a vein walls with surrounding adipose cells. 247
figure 10.22 Section of an arterial wall illustrating the different layers. 248
figure 10.23 a section of the heart wall near a ventricle illustrating different structures. 248
CHAPTER 11 immune system 249
figure11.1 Location and distribution of the lymphoid organs and lymphatic channels in the body. 250
figure1 1.2 Internal contents of a lymph node. 250
figure 11.3 Internal contents of the spleen. 250
figure 11.4 Lymph node (panoramic view). 253
figure 11.5 Lymph node: capsule, cortex, and medulla (sectional view). 254
figure 11 .6 Cortex and medulla of a lymph node. 256
figure 11.7 Lymph node: subcortical sinus, trabecular sinus, reticular cells, and lymphatic nodule. 257
figure 11.8 Lymph node: high endothelial venule in the paracortex (deep cortex) of a lymph node. 258
figure 11.9 Lymph node: subcapsular sinus, trabecular sinus, and supporting reticular fibers. 258
figure 11.10 Thymus gland (panoramic view). 259
figure 11.11 Thymus gland (sectional view). 260
figure 11.12 Cortex and medulla of a thymus gland. 260
figure 11.13 Spleen (panoramic view). 262
figure 11.14 Spleen: red and white pulp. 263
figure1 1.15 Red and white pulp of the spleen. 264
figure 11.16 Palatine tonsil. 265
figure 11.17 A low-power section of a primate lymph node illustrating its internal components. 269
figure i 1.18 Medium magnification of a section of primate cortex and medulla of a lymph node. 269
figure 11.19 Higher magnification of a primate lymph node illustrating its contents. 270
figure 11.20 Low-magnification section of human spleen illustrating its contents. 270
figure 11.21 A section of human spleen illustrating lymphatic nodules, periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), and the red and white pulp. 271
figure 11.22 A section of primate thymus gland illustrating the cortex and medulla and their contents. 271
figure 11.23 A section of human thymus cortex with the thymic (Hassall) corpuscle and the surrounding cells. 272
figure 11.24 Human palatine tonsil illustrating the crypts and the internal structures. 272
CHAPTER 12 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 273
SECTION 1 Thin Skin 276
figure 12.1 Contents of the connective tissue dermis of the thin skin of the arm. 276
figure 12.2 Thin skin: epidermis and the contents of the dermis. 277
figure 12.3 Skin: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis in the scalp. 278
figure12.4 Hairy thin skin of the scalp: hair follicles and surrounding structures. 279
figure 12.5 Hair follicle: bulb of the hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and arrector pili muscle. 280
SECTION 2 Thick Skin 281
figure 12.6 Contents of the connective tissue dermis of the thick skin of the palm. 281
figure 12.7 Thick skin: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis of the palm. 282
figure 12.8 Thick skin of the palm, superficial cell layers, and melanin pigment. 283
figure 12.9 Thick skin: epidermis and superficial cell layers. 284
figure 12.10 Apocrine sweat gland: secretory and excretory portions of the sweat gland. 285
figure 12.11 Cross section and three-dimensional appearance of an eccrine sweat gland. 286
figure 12.12 Glomus in the dermis of thick skin. 288
figure 12.13 Pacinian corpuscles in the dermis of thick skin (transverse and longitudinal sections). 289
figure 12.14 Hairy thin skin of the human scalp illustrating hair follicles and surrounding tissues in the dermis. 293
figure 12.15 A section of primate thin skin illustrating the contents of the epidermis and dermis. 293
figure 12.16 A section of human thick skin (palm) illustrating the epidermis, dermis, and their contents. 294
figure 12.17 A section of human thick skin illustrating the layers of epidermis. 294
figure 12.18 High-magnification section of human thick skin illustrating the epidermal layers, a Meissner corpuscle, and the underlying dermis. 295
figure 12.19 A section of human dermis with excretory ducts and the secretory cells of the sweat glands surrounded by myoepithelial cells. 295
figure 12.20 Higher magnification of a human sweat gland with excretory ducts secretory cells, and myoepithelial cells. 296
figure 12.21 Pacinian corpuscle with surrounding structures in the dermis of a male primate organ. 296
CHAPTER 13 digestive system part i: oral cavity and major salivary glands 297
Section I Oral Cavity 297
figure 13.1 Sagittal section of a tooth. 297
figure 13.2 a section of posterior tongue showing the circumvallate papillae, the location of the taste buds, and the associated serous glands. 298
figure 13.3 Dorsal surface of the tongue, showing the location of different papillae and tonsils. 298
figure 13.4 A section of the tongue epithelium showing the taste bud and its cells spanning the entire width of the stratified squamous epithelium. 299
figure 13.5 Lip (longitudinal section). 300
figure 13.6 Anterior region of the tongue: apex (longitudinal section). 301
figure 13.7 Tongue: circumvallate papilla (cross section). 302
figure 13.8 Tongue: filiform and fungiform papillae. 303
figure 13.9 Tongue: taste buds. 304
figure 13.10 Posterior tongue: behind circumvallate papillae and near lingual tonsil (longitudinal section). 305
figure 13.11 Lingual tonsils (transverse section). 306
figure 13.12 Dried tooth (longitudinal section). Ground and unstained. 307
figure 13.13 Dried tooth: dentinoenamel junction. Ground and unstained. 308
figure 13.1 a Dried tooth: cementum and dentin junction. Ground and unstained. 308
figure 13.15 Developing tooth (longitudinal section). 309
figure 13.16 Developing tooth: dentinoenamel junction in detail. 310
SECTION 2 Major Salivary Glands 310
figure 13.17 Salivary glands. The different types of acini (serous, mucous, and mixed, with serous demilunes), different duct types (intercalated, striated, and interlobular), and myoepithelial cells of a salivary gland are illustrated. 311
figure 13.18 Parotid salivary gland. 313
figure 13.19 Submandibular salivary gland. 314
figure 13.20 Sublingual salivary gland. 315
figure 13.21 Serous salivary gland: parotid gland. 316
figure 13.22 Mixed salivary gland: sublingual gland. 317
figure 13.23 Dorsal surface of the human tongue illustrating the filiform and fungiform papillae with taste buds. 321
figure 13.24 Dorsal surface of the human tongue illustrating the circumvallate papilla with surrounding structures. 321
figure 13.25 Plastic section of the fungiform papilla on a primate tongue illustrating taste buds. 322
figure 13.26 Section of a primate serous parotid salivary gland illustrating a striated duct and serous acini. 322
figure 13.27 Seromucous (submandibular) primate gland illustrating serous and mucous acini and different excretory ducts. 323
figure 13.28 Plastic section of a primate seromucous (submandibular) salivary gland illustrating the serous and mucous acini. 323
figure 13.29 A section of primate seromucous (sublingual) gland with mucous acini, serous demilunes, and excretory ducts. 324
figure 13.30 A section of primate seromucous (sublingual) gland illustrating the mucous acini, serous demilunes, and excretory ducts. 324
CHAPTER 14 digestive system part ii: esophagus and stomach 325
Section 1 Esophagus 326
figure 14.1 Four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and adventitia) in the wall of the esophagus and their characteristic contents. 326
figure 14.2 Wall of the upper esophagus (transverse section). 327
figure 14.3 Upper esophagus (transverse section). 328
figure 14.4 Lower esophagus (transverse section). 329
figure 14.5 Upper esophagus: mucosa and submucosa (longitudinal view). 330
figure 14.6 Lower esophageal wall (transverse section). 331
figure 14.7 Esophageal-stomach junction. 332
figure 14.8 Esophageal-stomach junction (transverse section). 333
SECTION 2 Stomach 334
figure 14.9 Four layers (mucosa, submucosa. muscularis externa, and serosa) in the wall of the stomach and their characteristic contents. 334
figure 14.10 Stomach: fundus and body region (transverse section). 335
figure 14.11 Stomach: mucosa of the fundus and body (transverse section). 337
figure 14.12 Stomach: fundus and body region (plastic section). 338
figure 14.13 Stomach: superficial region of gastric (fundic) mucosa. 340
figure 14.14 Stomach: basal region of gastric (fundic) mucosa. 341
figure 14.15 Pyloric region of the stomach. 343
figure 14.16 Pyloric-duodenal junction (longitudinal section). 345
figure 14.17 A transverse section of a primate esophagus illustrating the contents of its wall. Esophageal glands proper are in the submucosa. 349
figure 14.18 A higher magnification of a human esophageal wall illustrating epithelium and the lamina propria. 349
figure 14.19 Esophageal-stomach junction in a human illustrating the abrupt epithelial change at the junction. 350
figure 14.20 Lower-power illustration of the body/fundus section of a primate stomach wall. 350
figure 14.21 Lower-power illustration of the body/fundus section of a human stomach wall. 351
figure 14.22 A section of the body/fundus region of a primate stomach illustrating the gastric pits and gastric glands with different cells. 351
figure 14.23 A thin plastic section of the luminal surface area of the body/fundus region of a primate stomach. 352
figure 14.24 A section of the body/fundus region of a primate stomach illustrating bases of the gastric glands. 352
CHAPTER 15 digestive system part iii: small intestine and large intestine 353
Section 1 Small Intestine 353
figure is.i Different cell types and layers in the wall of the small intestine. 354
figure 15.2 Small intestine: duodenum (longitudinal section). 355
figure 15.3 Small intestine: duodenum (transverse section). 357
figure 15.4 Small intestine: jejunum (transverse section). 358
figure 15.5 Intestinal glands with Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells. 359
figure 15.6 Small intestine: jejunum with Paneth cells. 360
figure 15.7 Small intestine: ileum with lymphatic nodules (Peyer patches) (transverse section). 361
figure 15.8 Small intestine: villi (longitudinal and transverse section). 362
figure 15.9 Ultrastructure of microvilli in an absorptive cell in the small intestine. 363
SECTION 2 Large Intestine (Colon) 365
figure 15.10 Different cells and layers in the wall of the large intestine. 365
figure 15.11 Large intestine: colon and mesentery (panoramic view, transverse section). 366
figure 15.12 Large intestine: colon wall (transverse section). 367
figure 15.13 Large intestine: colon wall (transverse section). 368
figure 15.14 Appendix (panoramic view, transverse section). 370
figure 15.15 Rectum (panoramic view, transverse section). 371
figure 15.16 Anorectal junction (longitudinal section). 372
figure 15.17 A cross section of feline duodenum illustrating its characteristic features. Cells with mucus secretions stain magenta-red. 376
figure 15.18 Higher magnification of a primate duodenum with intestinal and the characteristic duodenal glands. 376
figure 15.19 High magnification of the villus from a human duodenum illustrating its contents. 377
figure 15.20 A section of human jejunum illustrating the mucosa with Paneth cells in the intestinal glands. 377
figure 15.21 A section of feline jejunum illustrating the bases of the intestinal glands with Paneth cells. 378
figure 15.22 A section of human ileum illustrating a Peyer patch and the submucosal lymphocytic aggregation. 378
figure 15.23 A section of human colon with temporary folds, intestinal glands, and a section of taeniae coli. 379
figure 15.24 A plastic section of primate colon illustrating the contents of its wall. 379
CHAPTER 16 digestive system part iv: accessory digestive organs (liver, pancreas, and gallbladder)
SECTION 1 Liver 380
figure 16.1 A section from the liver is illustrated, with emphasis on the details of the liver lobule. 381
figure 16.2 Pig liver (panoramic view, transverse section). 382
figure 16.3 Primate liver (panoramic view, transverse section). 383
figure 16.4 Bovine liver: liver iobule (transverse section). 384
figure 16.5 Hepatic (liver) lobule (sectional view, transverse section). 385
figure 16.6 Bile canaliculi in a liver lobule (osmic acid preparation). 385
figure 16.7 Kupffer cells in a liver lobule (India ink preparation). 386
figure 16.8 Glycogen granules in liver cells (hepatocytes). 386
figure 16.9 Reticular fibers in a liver lobule. 387
figure 16.10 Liver sinusoids, space of Disse. hepatocytes. and endothelial cells in a liver lobule. 387
SECTION 2 Pancreas 388
figure 16.11 A section from the pancreas is illustrated, with emphasis on the details of the duct system of the exocrine pancreas. 388
figure 16.12 Exocrine and endocrine pancreas (sectional view). 389
figure 16.13 Pancreatic islet. 390
figure 16.14 Pancreatic islet (special preparation). 391
figure 16.15 Pancreas: endocrine (pancreatic islet) and exocrine regions. 392
figure 16.16 Immunohistochemical preparation of a mammalian pancreatic islet. 393
SECTION 3 Gallbladder 393
figure 16.17 Wall of the gallbladder. 394
figure 16.18 Low magnification of a pig liver illustrating lobules separated by connective tissue septa. 398 figure 16.19 Portal area in a pig liver illustrating its contents. 398
figure 16.20 Higher magnification of a liver lobule surrounding the central vein illustrating the glycogen granules in hepatocytes. 399
figure 16.21 Section of a rodent liver lobule after injection with India ink-to illustrate the phagocytic Kupffer cells. 399
figure 16.22 Low-power section of a primate pancreas illustrating the endocrine pancreatic islets and the surrounding exocrine acini. 400
figure 16.23 A higher-power section of a primate pancreatic islet, the excretory duct, and the surrounding acini. 400
figure 16.24 More detailed image of a primate pancreatic islet, excretory duct, and the surrounding cells. 401
figure 16.25 Low-power section of a primate gallbladder wall illustrating its contents. 401
CHAPTER 17 respiratory system 402
figure 17.1 A section of the lung is illustrated in three dimensions and in transverse section. Magnified versions of a bronchiole and a type II pneumocyte (both circled here) are illustrated in Figures 17.2 and 17.S. respectively. 403
figure 17.2 Internal structure of the respiratory bronchiole in the lung illustrating the close proximity of air in the alveolus, the blood in the capillary, and the macrophage dust cell. 404
figure 17.3 High magnification of a type II alveolar cell in an alveolus. 404
figure 17.4 Olfactory mucosa and superior concha (panoramic view). 405
figure 17.5 Olfactory mucosa: details of a transitional area. 406
figure 17.6 Olfactory mucosa in the nose: transition area. 407
figure 17.7 Epiglottis (longitudinal section). 408
figure 17.8 Larynx (frontal section). 409
figure 17.9 Trachea (panoramic view, transverse section). 410
figure 17.10 Tracheal wall (sectional view). 411
figure 17.11 Lung (panoramic view). 412
figure 17.12 Intrapulmonary bronchus (transverse section). 413
figure 17.13 Intrapulmonary bronchus, cartilage plates, and surrounding alveoli of the lung. 414
figure 17.14 Terminal bronchiole (transverse section). 415
figure 17.15 Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, and lung alveoli. 416
figure 17.16 Lung: terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveoli, and a blood vessel. 417
figure 17.17 Alveolar walls and alveolar cells. 417
figure 17.18 A section of lung alveoli adjacent to a bronchiole wall. 418
figure 17.19 A low-power ultrastructure of the lung, showing a portion of a bronchiole wall and adjacent alveoli. 419
figure 17.20 A section of a human nasal Cavity illustrating the transition and difference between ciliated respiratory epithelium (left) and olfactory epithelium (right). 424
figure 17.21 A section of a primate trachea illustrating the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and the supportive hyaline cartilage. 424
figure 17.22 A section of a primate intrapulmonary bronchi with surrounding lung tissues. 425
figure 17.23 A plastic section of the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium from a human intrapulmonary bronchus. 425
figure 17.24 A transverse section of a primate bronchiole with surrounding tissues. 426
figure 17.25 A smaller bronchiole in a primate lung surrounded by alveoli. 426
figure 17.26 A solid terminal primate bronchiole surrounded by alveoli. 427
figure 17.27 A primate respiratory bronchiole with alveoli and surrounded by alveoli. 427
CHAPTER 18 urinary system 428
figure 18.1 A sagittal section of the kidney shows the cortex and medulla, with blood vessels and the excretory ducts, including the pelvis and the ureter. 428
figure 18.2 Histologic comparison of blood vessels, the different tubules of the nephron, and the collecting ducts. 430
figure 18.3 Kidney: cortex, medulla, pyramid, renal papilla, and minor calyx (panoramic view). 432
figure 18.4 Kidney cortex and upper medulla. 433
figure 18.5 Kidney cortex: juxtaglomerular apparatus. 437
figure 18.6 Kidney cortex: renal corpuscle, juxtaglomerular apparatus, and convoluted tubules. 438
figure 18.7 Ultrastructure of cells in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. 439
figure 18.8 Ultrastructure of the apical cell surface in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. 440
figure 18.9 Kidney: scanning electron micrograph of podocytes (visceral epithelium of the glomerular (Bowman) capsule) surrounding the glomerular capillaries. 441
figure 18.10 Kidney: transmission electron micrograph of a podocyte and adjacent capillaries in the renal corpuscle. 442
figure 18.11 Kidney medulla: papillary region (transverse section). 443
figure 18.12 Kidney medulla: terminal end of a papilla (longitudinal section). 444
figure 18.13 Kidney: ducts of the medullary region (longitudinal section). 445
figure 18.14 Urinary system: ureter (transverse section). 446
figure 18.15 Section of a ureter wall (transverse section). 447
figure 18.16 Ureter (transverse section). 448
figure 18.17 Urinary bladder: wall (transverse section). 448
figure 18.18 Urinary bladder: contracted mucosa (transverse section). 449
figure 18.19 Urinary bladder: stretched mucosa (transverse section). 450
figure 18.20 A low-power micrograph of a rodent unilobar kidney (in humans, the kidney is multilobar). 455
figure 18.21 A higher-power section of rodent kidney cortex illustrating its contents. 455
figure 18.22 A section through a human kidney cortex illustrating the renal corpuscle arid the surrounding ducts. 456
figure 18.23 Longitudinal section of the medullary region of a primate kidney with different tubules and blood vessels. 456
figure 18.24 Longitudinal section of papillary ducts in the papilla of a primate kidney illustrating simple columnar epithelium and the surrounding tissue. 457
figure 18.25 A transverse section of primate ureter, its transitional epithelium, the smooth muscle layers, and the surrounding tissues. 457
figure 18.26 A section of the wall from an empty primate bladder and the appearance of the transitional epithelium. 458
figure 18.27 A section of a distended primate bladder wall and the appearance of the transitional epithelium. 458
CHAPTER 19 ENDOCRIME SYSTEM 450
SECTION 1 Hormones and Pituitary Gland 459
figure 19.1 Hypothalamus and hypophysis (pituitary gland). A section of hypothalamus and hypophysis illustrates the neuronal, axonal. and vascular connections between the hypothalamus and the hypophysis. Also illustrated are the major target cells, tissues, and organs that respond to the hormones that are produced by both the anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis) pituitary gland. 460
figure 19.2 Hypophysis (panoramic view, sagittal section). 463
figure 19.3 Hypophysis: sections of pars distalis. pars intermedia, and pars nervosa. 464
figure 19.4 Hypophysis: pars distalis (sectional view). 465
figure 19.5 Cell types in the hypophysis. 465
figure 19.6 Hypophysis: pars distalis. pars intermedia, and pars nervosa. 466
SECTION 2 Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Glands, and Adrenal Gland 471
figure 19.7 The microscopic organization of the parathyroid and thyroid gland is illustrated. 471
figure 19.8 The microscopic organization of the adrenal gland is illustrated. 472
figure 19.9 Thyroid gland: canine (general view). 473
figure 19.10 Thyroid gland follicles: canine (sectional view). 474
figure 19.11 Thyroid and parathyroid glands: canine (sectional view). 475
figure 19.12 Thyroid gland and parathyroid gland. 476
figure 19.13 Adrenal (suprarenal) gland.